Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access
Total views : 124

Diatoms in Sub-Surface Sediment Cores from Mangrove Forest Floors of Deltaic Islands in Sundarbans, India

Affiliations

  • Department of Botany, University of Kalyani, Nadia district 741 235, West Bengal, India

Abstract


Species constituting diatom assemblages in sediments provide important information regarding the past and present environmental conditions related to soil and water physico-chemistry and also biodiversity dynamics data. This information can reveal the developmental history of the region. Diatoms are sensitive to stochastic changes in the environment, making them extremely reliable bio-indicators. The purpose of the present study was to decipher such biodiversity related information provided by the diatom assemblages from the Indian Sundarbans. Diatoms were identified in the top 50 cm layer of two sediment cores: a newly silted up deltaic landmass with mangroves in early succession stage, and an island within the Protected Area Network with mangroves in late succession stage. Fifteen diatom species, with no past records in the sediments of Indian Sundarbans were identified and described. Four species among them are sporadically mentioned in previous phytoplankton records fi-om the Sundarbans, but these are not confirmed taxonomically. This paper provides identification and nomenclatural notes on all 15 species. High abundance and species richness of the centric forms Coscinodiscus spp., Cyclotella spp., and Thalassiosira spp. at both the sites is attributed to their proximity to estuarine rivers and their regular inundation, leading to settling of planktonic forms within sediment cores. Many pennate forms, namely Amphicampa eruca, Amphora holsatica, Diploneis spp. (except Z). smithii), Epithemia turgida, Eunotiapectinalis, Giffenia cocconeiformis, and Rhaphoneis rhombus which are being reported for the first time fi-om this region have never been part of described planktonic communities in estuarine waters, validating their' soil diatom' status. Typical fi-eshwater diatoms, namely Aulacoseira granulata and Epithemia turgida, in the sediments indicate lower salinity in these areas, not much earlier than present times.

Keywords

Diatoms, Sediment-Core, Deltaic Mangroves, Estuaries, Sundarbans.

Full Text:

 |  (PDF views: 1)

References


  • ANDERSON, G.C. (1972): Aspects of marine phytoplankton studies near the Columbia River with special reference to a subsurface chlorophyll maximum. Pp. 219-240. In: Alverson, D.L. & AT. Pruter (Eds): The Columbia River estuary and adjacent ocean waters. University of Washington, Seattle.
  • BANERJEE, A . & S.C. SANTRA (1999): Certain aspects of ecological preferences of plankton of Sundarban estuary, West Bengal, India. J. Mar. Biol. Ass. India 41: 107-110.
  • BANERJEE, A. & S.C. SANTRA (2001): Phytoplankton of the rivers of Indian Sundarban mangrove estuary. Ind. Biol. 33(1): 67-71.
  • BANERJEE, A. & S.C. SANTRA (2007): Present planktonic panorama in Sundarban estuary, West Bengal, India obeying neotectonic plate movement of Bengal basin. Ind. Hydrobiol. 10(2): 277-282.
  • BANERJEE, K . , A. MITRA, S. MAJUMDAR, A. CHOUDHURY & D.P. BHATTACHARYYA (2001): Phytoplankton spectrum in and around Deltaic Sundarbans. J. Ind. Ocean Studies 9(1): 120-126.
  • BISWAS, H., M . DEY, D . GANGULY, T.K. DE, S. GHOSH & T.K. JANA (2010): Comparative analysis of phytoplankton composition and abundance over a two-decade period at the land-ocean boundary of a tropical mangrove ecosystem. Estuaries and Coasts 33(2): 384—394.
  • BISWAS, S.N., D. RAKSHIT, S.K. SARKAR, R . K . SARANGI & K.K. SATPATHY (2014): Impact of multispecies diatom bloom on plankton community structure in Sundarban mangrove wetland, India. Marine Pollution Bulletin 85(1): 306-311. doi: 10.1016/j. marpolbul. 2014.04.015.
  • CHAUDHURI, K . , S. MANNA, K . SEN SARMA, P. NASKAR, S. BHATTACHARYYA & M. BHATTACHARYYA (2012): Physicochemical and biological factors controlling water column metabolism in Sundarbans estuary, Indm. Aquatic Biosystems 8: 26. doi: 10.1186/2046-9063-8-26.
  • CHOUDHURY, A.K. & P. BHADURY (2014): Phytoplankton study from the Simdarbans ecoregion with an emphasis on cell biovolume estimates - a review. Ind. J. Geo-Mar. Sc. 43(10): 1905-1913.
  • CHOUDHURY, A.K. & R. PAL (2008): Diversity of planktonic diatoms from West Bengal coast with special reference to taxonomic accounts. Phytomorphology 58: 9-40.
  • CLEVE, P.T. (1881): On some new and little known diatoms. Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm.
  • CLEVE, P.T. (1894): Synopsis of the Naviculoid diatoms Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences Stockholm. Kongl. Svenska VetenskapsAkademiens Handlingar 26(2): 1-216.
  • CouiN, F. & E. LuDDEN (1983): Primary production of phytoplankton in the Ems-DoUard estuary. Pp. 38-99. In: COLDN, F. (Ed.): Primary production in the Ems-DoUard estuary. Drukkerij Van Denderen, Groningen.
  • Cox, E.J. (1996): Identification of freshwater diatoms from live material. Chapman & Hall, London. 158 pp.
  • CREMER, H . , F. SANGIORGI, F. WAGNER-CREMER, V. MCGEE, A.F. LOTTER & H. VisscHER (2007): Diatoms (Bacillariophyceae) and Dinoflagellate cysts (Dinophyceae) from Rookery Bay, Florida, USA. Caribbean J. Sc. 43(1): 23-58.
  • Cupp, E.E. (1943): Marine plankton diatom of the West Coast of North America. University of California Press, Berkeley & Los Angeles. Bulletin of the Seripps Institution of Oceanography 5(1): 238 pp.
  • DASGUPTA, N . , P. NANDY, C. SENGUPTA & S. DAS (2012): Salinity impact on the precarious mangroves: a biochemical study on some taxa from Indian Simdarbans. Amer. J. Plant Physio 7(2): 53-69.
  • DE SOUZA-MOSIMANN, R.M., R. LAUDARES-SILVA, D . M . TALGATTI & V. D'AQUINO-ROSA (2011): The diatom flora in Conceipao Lagoon, Florianopolis, SC, Brazil. INSULA Revista de Botanica 40:25-54.
  • DE, T.K., S.K. GHOSH, T.K. JANA & A. CHOUDHURY (1991): Phytoplankton bloom in the Hooghly estuary. Indian Journal of Marine Sciences 20: 134-137.
  • DE, T.K., M. DE, S. DAS, C. CHOWDHURY, R. RAY & T.K. JANA (2011): Phytoplankton abundance in relation to cultural eutrophication at the land-ocean boundary of Sunderbans, NE Coast of Bay of Bengal, India. J. Env. Stud. So. 1(3): 169-180. doi: 10.1007/ S13412-011-0022-3.
  • DROOP, S.J.M. (1994): Morphological variation in Diploneis smithii and D. fusca (Bacillariophyceae). Archivfur Protistenkunde. 144(3): 249-270.
  • FERNANDES, L.F., L. ZEHNDER-ALVES & J.C. BASSFELD (2001): The recentiy established diatom Coscinodiscus wailesii (Coscinodiscales, Bacillariophyta) in Brazilian waters. I: Remarks on morphology and distribution. Phycological Research 49: 89-96.
  • FERRARIO, M . E . & E.A. SAR (1994): Valve morphology oi Coscinodiscus janischii Schmidt (Bacillariophyceae). Proc. 11th Int Diatom Symp. Pp. 63-68.
  • GOMEZ, N . , J.L. RIERA & S. SABATER (1995): Ecology and morphological variability of Aulacoseira granulata (Bacillariophyceae) in Spanish reservoirs. / . Plank Res. 17(1): 1-16
  • GuiRY, M.D. & G.M. GuiRY (2015): AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication. National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org. Accessed on May 02, 2015.
  • HAKANSSON, H . (2011): Cyclotella striata complex: Typification and new combinations. Diatom Res. 11(2): 241-260. doi: 10.1080/0269249X. 1996.9705382.
  • HASLE, G.R. & E.E. SYVERTSEN (1997): Marine diatoms. In: TOMAS, C.R. (Ed.): Identifying marine phytoplankton. Academic Press, San Diego. Pp. 5-385.
  • HENDEY, N.I. (1964): An introductory account of the smaller algae of British coastal waters. Part V. Bacillariophyceae (Diatoms). Fishery Investigations, Series IV, Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, pp. xxii + 317, Plates i-xlv.
  • HENDEY, N.I. (1974): A revised check-list of British marine diatoms. J. Mar Biol Ass. UK 54: in-Tim.
  • HERNANDEZ-BECERRIL, D.U. (2000): Morfologia y taxonomia de algunas especies de diatomeas del g^nero Coscinodiscus de las costas del Pacifico mexicano. Rev. Biol Trop. 48(1): 7-18.
  • HEURCK, H.V. (1896): A treatise on the Diatomaceae. William Wesley & Sons, London. 558 pp. + 36 plates.
  • HIRANO, M.I. (1969): Freshwater algae from Rangtang Himal, Nepal Himalaya. Contribution from the Biological Laboratory. Departmental Bulletin Paper, Kyoto University 22: 1. http://hdlhandle.net/2433/155943.
  • IPCC (2007): Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerabilify: Contribution of working group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the IPCC. Cambridge University Press, New York. Pp. 987.
  • ISLAM, M.N., M.S. RAHMAN & M.R. RAHMAN (2010): Fisheries ecobiology ofbeel Koshba inNaogaon district. Univ. J. zool. Rajshahi Univ. 28: 33-39.
  • JAHN, R. & W. KusBER (2004): Algae of the Ehrenberg collection - 1. Typification of 32 names of diatom taxa described by Ehrenberg C.G. mildenowia 34: 577-595. doi: 10.3372/wi.34. 34219.
  • JAHN, R. & W. KUSBER (2006): Algae of the Ehrenberg collection - 3. Typification of seven diatom taxa described by Ehrenberg C.G. predominantly from Greece. Mildenowia 36: 527-535.
  • KOCIOLEK, J.P. (2000): Valve ultrastructure of some Eunotiaceae (Bacillariophyceae) with comments on the evolution of the raphe system. Proc. California Acad. Sci. Occasional Proceed., 4th series 53: 11-21.
  • KRAMMER, K . (2002): Diatoms of Europe. In: LANGE-BERTALOT, H . (Ed.): Diatoms of the European Inland Waters and Comparable Habitats. Cymbella Vol. 3. ARG Gantner Verlag KG. 584 pp.
  • KRAMMER, K. & H. LANGE-BERTALOT (1986): Bacillariophyceae 1. Teil: Naviculaceae. In: Ettl, H., J. Gerloff, H. Heynig and D. MoUenhauer (Eds): SuBwasserflora von Mitteleiuropa, 2/1. Gustav Fischer Verlag. 876 pp.
  • KRAMMER, K. & H. LANGE-BERTALOT (1988): Bacillariophyceae 2. Teil: Bacillariaceae, Epithemiaceae, Surirellaceae. In: ETTL, H., J. GERLOFF, H . HEYNIG & D. MOLLENHAUER (Eds): SiiBwasserflora von Mitteleuropa. VEB Gustav Fischer Verlag. 596 pp.
  • LANGE-BERTALOT, H . (Ed.) (1996): Iconographia Diatomologica. Annotated Diatom Monographs. Vol. 2. Koeltz Scientific Books. 390 pp.
  • LEE, H .W & J.S. PARK (2008): Astudy of the fine structure of the marine diatoms of Korean coastal waters - Genus Thalassiosira 3. Algae 23(3): 187-199.
  • MANNA, S., K. CHAUDHURI, S. BHATTACHARYYA & M. BHATTACHARYYA (2010): Dynamics of Sundarbans estuarine ecosystem: eutrophication induced threat to mangroves. Sal. Sys. 6: 8. doi:10.1186/1746-1448-6-8.
  • MANOYLOV, K.M., N. OGNJANOVA-RUMENOVA & R.J. STEVENSON (2009): Morphotype variations in subfossil diatom species of Aulacoseira in 24 Michigan Lakes, USA. Acta Bot. Croat. 68(2): 401^19.
  • MiTRA, A. (2013): Sensitivity of Mangrove Ecosystem to Changing Climate. Springer, New Delhi.
  • MORGAN, J.P. & W.G. MCINTIRE (1959): Quatemery geology of the Bengal Basin, East Pakistan and Burma. Bull. Geol Sci. Am. 70:319-342.
  • MuKHERjEE, A., S. DAS, M . DE, T.K. MAITI & T.K. DE (2013a): Areport on the micro-phjrtoplankton size range, biovolume, biomass and geometric shape in the post 'Aila' (severe cyclone) waters of estuarine Sundarban - Bay of Bengal, India. J. Mar. Biol. Oceanogr. 2: 4. http://dx.doi.oig/10.4172/2324-8661.1000118.
  • MUKHERJEE, A . , A . BASU, S. CHAKRABORTY, S. DAS & T.K. DE (2013b): Salinity might be the most influential factor of cell surface size of Coscinodiscus in well mixed tropical estuarine waters. Int. J. Life Sc. Edu. Res. 1(2): 81-90. available online at http://www.ijlser.com.
  • MUKHERJEE, A., T.K. DE, S. DAS & M. DE (2014): Tropical cyclones might seem to affect pennate diatoms more than their centric counterparts in well mixed estuaries. Amer. Int. J. Res. For App. Nat. Sc. 14-413: 3 1 ^ 0 .
  • NASKAR, K.R. & D.N. GUHA BAKSHI (1987): Mangrove swamps of the Sundarbans - An ecological perspective. Naya Prokash, Calcutta.
  • OTZEN, D . (2012): The role of proteins in biosiUcification. Scientifica 2012: 22, article ID 867562. http://dx.doi.org/10.6064/2012/867562. Accessed on 2nd August, 2015.
  • PARK, J., J.S. KHIM, T. OHTSUKA, H. ARAKI, A. WITKOWSKI & C. KOH (2012): Diatom assemblages on Nanaura mudflat, Ariake Sea, Japan: with reference to the biogeography of marine benthic diatoms in Northeast Asia. Bot. Studies 53: 105-124.
  • PARSON, T.R., R.J. LE BRASSEUR & W.E. BARRACLOUG (1970): Levels of production in the pelagic environment of the Strait of Georgia, British Colimibia: A review. J. Fish Res. Board Canada 27: 1251-1264.
  • PETERSON, D . H . (1979): Sources and sinks of biologically reactive oxygen, carbon, nitrogen, and silica in Northern San Francisco Bay. Pp. 175-193. In: CONOMOS, T.J. (Ed.): San Francisco Bay: The urbanized estuary. Allen Press, San Francisco.
  • RABENHORST, L . (1864): Flora europaea algarum aquae dulcis et submarinae. Sectio I. Algas diatomaceas complectens, cum figuris generum omnium xylographice impressis. Pp. 1-359. Lipsiae [Leipzig]: Apud Eduardum Kummerum.RASHID, T. (2014): Holocene Sea-level scenarios in Bangladesh. Springer Briefs in Oceanography, doi: 10.1007/978-981-4560-99-32.
  • RASHID, T., S. SUZUKI, H . SATO, M . H . MONSUR, S.K. SAHA (2013): Relative sea-level changes during the Holocene in Bangladesh. J. Asian Earth Sci. 64: 136-150.
  • ROUND, F.E. & RW. BASSON (1997): A new diatom Genus (Giffenia) based on Nitzschia cocconeiformis Grun. and a note on Nitzschia (Tryblionella) lanceola Grun. Diatom Research 12(2): 347-355. doi: 10.1080/0269249X. 1997.9705426.
  • SANTRA, S . C , U . C . PAL & A. CHOUDHURY (1989): Phytoplankton of Bhagirathi-Hoogly estuary: an illustrative account. Indian Biol. 21: 1-27.
  • SANTRA, S.C, U.C. PAL & A. CHOUDHURY (1991): Marine phytoplankton of the mangrove delta region of West Bengal, India. J. Mar. Biol. Ass. India 33(182): 292-307.
  • SAR, E . A . , S.E. SALA, R HINZ & I. SUNESAN (2003): Revision oiAmphora holsatica (Bacillariophyceae). European Journal ofPhycology 38(1): 73-81. doi:10.1080/096702603 1000096272.
  • SAR, E.A., I. SUNESEN & A.S. LAVIGNE (2010): Cymatotheca, Tryblioptychus, Skeletonema and Cyclotella (Thalassiosirales) from Argentinian coastal waters. Description of Cyclotella cubiculata sp. nov. Vie et Milieu - Life and Environment 60(2): 133-154.
  • SARKAR, S.K. (2015): Loricate Ciliate Tintinnids in aTropical Mangrove Wetland: Diversity, Distribution and Impact of Climate Change. Springer, New Delhi.
  • SEN, N . & K.R. NASKAR (2002): Algal conmiunities in the inter-tidal mangrove niches of Sundarbans. J. Interacad. 6(4): 420-433.
  • SEN, N . & K.R. NASKAR (2003): Algal flora of Sundarbans Mangal. Daya Publishing House, New Delhi. 317 pp.
  • SEN, N . , S. NASKAR & K.R. NASKAR (2002): Taxonomy of the diatom flora of Sundarbans mangals in West Bengal, India. J. Interacad. 6(2): 118-137.
  • SIMONSEN, R. (1979): The diatom system: ideas on phylogeny. Bacillaria 2: 9-71.
  • SKVORTZOW, B.W. (1928): Diatoms from Khiangan mountain, N. Manchuria, China. Philippine J. Sc. 35: 29-51.
  • TAYLOR, J . C , K . BALASUBRAMANIAN, C. COCQUYT & P. LANG (2014): Diploneis fenestrata sp. nov. (Bacillariophyta), a new aerophilic diatom species fi-om Zambia, Africa. Phytotaxa 167(1): 79-88.
  • Tuji, A. & D.M. WILLLMS (2005): Observation of the type materials fox Eunotiapectinalis (Kutz.) Rabenh. vai.pectinalis andEunotia pectinalis var. undulata (Ralfs) Rabenh. Diatom 21: 57-60.
  • VILLAC, M . C , V.A.P. CABRAL-NORONHA & TO. PINTO (2008): The phytoplankton biodiversity of the coast of the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Biota Neotrop. 8(3): 151-173.
  • WANG, C , X. Li, Z. LAI, X. TAN, S. PANG & W YANG (2009): Seasonal variations of Aulacoseira granulata population abundance in the Pearl river estuary. Est. Coast Shelf Sc. 85(2009): 582-592. doi: 10.1016/j.ecss.2009.09.031.
  • WITKOWSKI, A . , H . LANGE-BERTALOT & D. METZELTIN (2000): Diatom flora of marine coasts 1. ARG Gantner Verlag K.G. 925 pp.
  • WOOD,E.J.R (1961): Studies on Australian and New Zealand diatoms. IV. Descriptions of fijrther sedentary species. Trans. Royal Soc. New Zealand 88(4): 669-698.
  • YAWEN, R & H.U. ZHENGYU (2007): Morphological observation of Epithemia ocellata (Ehr.) Kutz. (Bacillariophyceae) from China. Chinese J. Ocean Limno. 25(4): 398-402.