Open Access Subscription or Fee AccessTotal views : 2914
Aerobic Culturable Bacterial Microflora in Resident Gyps vulture species of India
Microflora of three Critically Endangered, resident Gyps species of Indian vultures was studied at the Vulture Conservation Breeding Centre, Pinjore, Panchkula district, Haryana. Cloacal and choanal swabs from 32 adult Gyps vultures (10 White-rumped Gyps bengalensis, 11 Long-billed G. indicus and 11 Slender-billed G. tenuirostris) held in captivity at the centre were collected in October 2011 and analyzed to determine the presence of aerobic culturable bacteria. A total of 23 bacterial species were isolated from the 64 cloacal and choanal samples collected and analyzed. The commonly encountered bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract were Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, and Enterococcus avium, while Staphylococcus epidermidis, S. saprophyticus, and Streptococcus pneumoniae were prevalent in the respiratory tract. The rest of the bacterial species were of low prevalence, and no specific pattern of colonization was seen. In spite of their exposure to a variety of microorganisms due to the scavenging nature of the vultures, only a few organisms were observed to colonize successfully and form the normal flora. The bacterial species richness and diversity among the three vulture species was similar.
Gastrointestinal, Respiratory, Aerobic Culturable Bacteria, Gyps Vultures, Conservation, Critically Endangered.
- Ali, S. & S.D. Ripley (1983): Handbook of the Birds of India and Pakistan. Compact Edition. Oxford University Press, New Delhi.
- Apajalahti, J. (2005): Comparative gut microflora, metabolic challenges, and potential opportunities. Journal of Applied Poultry Research 14: 444–453.
- Bangert, R.L., A.C.S. Ward, E.H. Stauber, B.R. Cho & P.R. Widders (1988): A survey of the aerobic bacteria in the feces of captive raptors. Avian Disease 32(1): 53–62.
- Benno, Y., K. Endo, T. Mizutani, Y. Namb a, T. Komori & T. Mitsuoka (1989): Comparison of fecal microflora of elderly persons in rural and urban areas of Japan. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 55(5): 1100–1105.
- Blanco, G., J.A. Lemus & J. Grande (2006): Faecal bacteria associated with different diets of wintering red kites: influence of livestock carcass dumps in microflora alteration and pathogen acquisition. Journal of Applied Ecology 43: 990–998.
- Blanco, G., J.A. Lemus, J. Grande, L. Gangoso, J.M. Grande, J.A. Donázar, B. Arr oyo, O. Frias & F. Hiraldo (2007): Geographical variation in cloacal microflora and bacterial antibiotic resistance in a threatened avian scavenger in relation to diet and livestock farming practices. Environmental Microbiology 9(7): 1738–1749.
- Devr iese, L.A., M. Vancanneyt, M. Baele, M. Vaneechoutte, E. De
- Graef, C. Snauwaert, I. Cleenwerck , P. Dawyndt, J. Swings, A. Decostere & F. Haesebr ock (2005): Staphylococcus pseudintermedius sp. nov., a coagulase-positive species from animals. International Journal of Systematic Evolutionary Microbiology 55(4): 1569–1573.
- Gingerich, E. (2011): E. coli infections in poultry. Diamond V: 1–4.
- Green, R.E., I. Newton, S. Shultz, A.A. Cunningham, M. Gilbert, D.J. Pain & V. Prakash (2004): Diclofenac poisoning as a cause of vulture population declines across the Indian subcontinent. Journal of Applied Ecology 41: 793–800.
- Hartley, M.G., M.J. Hudson, E.T. Swarbr ick , M.J. Hill, A.E. Gent, M.D. Heller & R.H. Grace (1992): The rectal mucosaassociated microflora in patients with ulcerative colitis. Journal of Medical Microbiology 36: 96–103.
- Holt, J.G., N.R. Krieg, P.H.A. Sneath, J.T. Staley & S.T. Williams (1984): Bergey’s Manual of Determinative Bacteriology. 9th edn. Williams and Williams, Baltimore, MD.
- Houston, D.C. & J.E. Cooper (1975): The digestive tract of white-back griffon vulture and its role in disease transmission among wild ungulates. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 11: 306–313.
- Janda, J.M., S.L. Abb ott, S. Krosk e-Bystrom, W.K. Cheung, C. Powers , R.P. Kokk a & K. Tamura (1991): Pathogenic properties of Edwardsiella species. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 29: 1997–2001.
- John, A.M., J.A.J. Prakash, E.G. Simon & N. Thomas (2012): Edwardsiella tarda sepsis with multiple liver abscesses in a patient with Cushing’s syndrome. Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology 30(3): 352–354.
- Kocijan, I., R.E. Prukner, R. Beck , A. Galov, A. Marinculic & G. Susic (2009): Microflora and intestinal parasites of the
- Eurasian Griffon vulture (Gyps fulvus) in Croatia. European Journal of Wildlife Research 55: 71–74.
- Lamb ersk i, N., A.C. Hull, K. Beckm en & T.Y. Morishita (2003): A survey of the choanal and cloacal aerobic bacterial flora in freeliving and captive red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) and Cooper’s hawks (Accipiter cooperii). Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery 17: 131–135.
- Ley, R.E., M. Hamady, C. Lozupone, P.J. Turnbaugh, R.R. Ramey, J.S. Birc her, M.L. Schlegel, T.A. Tuck er, M.D. Schrenzel, R. Knight & J.I. Gordon (2008): Evolution of mammals and their gut microbes. Science 320(5883): 1647–1651.
- Lomb ardo, M.P., P.A. Thorpe, R. Cichewicz, M. Henshaw, C. Millard, C. Steen & T.K. Zeller (1996): Communities of cloacal bacteria in Tree Swallow families. Peer Reviewed Publications. Paper 13. http://scholarworks.gvsu.edu/biopeerpubs/13.
- Muegge, B.D., J. Kuczynsk i, D. Knights, J.C. Clemente, A. González, L. Fontana, B. Henriss at, R. Knight & J.I. Gordon (2011): Diet drives convergence in gut microbiome functions across mammalian phylogeny and within humans. Science 332(6032): 970–974.
- Needham, J.R. (1981): Bacterial flora of birds of prey. Pp. 3–9. In: Cooper, J.E. & A.G. Greenwood (Eds): Recent Advances in the Study of Raptor Diseases. Chiron Publishers Ltd., Keighley, Yorks.
- Nelson, T.M., T.L. Rogers , A.R. Carlini & M.V. Brown (2013): Diet and phylogeny shape the gut microbiota of Antarctic seals: a comparison of wild and captive animals. Environmental Microbiology 15(4): 1132–1145.
- Oaks J.L., M. Gilbert, M.Z. Virani, R.T. Watson, C.U. Meteyer, B.A. Rideout, H.L. Shivaprasad, S. Ahmed, M.J. Chaudhry,
- M. Ars had, S. Mahmood, A. Ali & A.A. Khan (2004): Diclofenac residues as the cause of vulture population decline in Pakistan. Nature 427(6975): 630–633.
- Park S.B., T. Aoki & T.S. Jung (2012): Pathogenesis of and strategies for preventing Edwardsiella tarda infection in fish. Veterinary Research 43(1): 43–67.
- Prakash, V., N. Prakash, R. Shringarpure & M. Kulkarni (2012): Working Manual on the Vulture Conservation Breeding Programme.
- Prakash V, M.C. Bishwakarm a, A. Chaudhary, R. Cuthbert & R. Dave (2012): The population decline of Gyps vultures in India and Nepal has slowed since veterinary use of Diclofenac was banned. PLoS ONE 7(11): e49118. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0049118.
- Quinn, P.J., M.E. Carter, B.K. Mark ey & G.R. Carter (1994): Clinical Veterinary Microbiology. Wolfe Publishing, London.
- Rodrigues, L., L. Macedo, J. Robert, M.C. Fernandes, A.T. Santos Meira, L.A. De Lima, R.A. Fernandes, P.C. Peregrino & M.E. Bernardes (2003): Dominant culturable bacterial microbiota in the digestive tract of the American Black Vulture (Coragyps atratus Bechstein 1793) and search for antagonistic substances. Brazilian Journal of Microbiology 34: 218–224.
- Scupham, A.J., T.G. Patton, E. Bent & D.O. Bayles (2008): Comparison of the cecal microbiota of domestic and wild turkeys. Microbial Ecology 56: 322–331.
- Silva N., G. Igrejas, A. Gonzalves & P. Poeta (2011): Commensal gut bacteria: distribution of Enterococcus species and prevalence of Escherichia coli phylogenetic groups in animals and humans in Portugal. Annals of Microbiology DOI 10.1007/ s13213-011-0308-4.
- Slaven E.M., F.A. Lopez, S.M. Hart & C.V. Sanders (2001): Myonecrosis caused by Edwardsiella tarda: A case report and case series of extraintestinal E. tarda infections. Clinical Infectious Diseases 32(10): 1430–1433.
- Todar, K. (2008): Todar’s Online Textbook of Bacteriology. Available online at http://www.textbookofbacteriology.net/.
- Uenishi, G., S. Fujita, G. Ohashi, A. Kato, S. Yamauchi, T. Matsuzawa & K. Ushida (2007): Molecular analyses of the intestinal microbiota of chimpanzees in the wild and in captivity. American Journal of Primatology 69: 367–376.
- Vi l l ers , L.M., S.S. Jang, C.L. Lent, S.C. Lewi n-Koh & J.A. Norosoarinaivo (2008): Survey and comparison of major intestinal flora in captive and wild ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) populations. American Journal of Primatology 70: 175–184.
- Wienemann, T., D. Schmitt-Wagner, K. Meuser, G. Segelbacher, B. Schink, A. Brune & P. Berthold (2011): The bacterial microbiota in the ceca of Capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus) differs between wild and captive birds. Systematic Applied Microbiology 34: 542–551.
- Winsor, D.K., A.P. Bloebaum & J.J. Mathewson (1981): Gram-negative, aerobic, enteric pathogens among intestinal microflora of wild turkey vultures (Cathartes aura) in west central Texas. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 42(6): 1123–1124.
- Xenoulis, P.G., P.L. Gray, D. Brightsm ith, B. Palculict, S. Hoppes, J.M. Steiner, I. Tizard & J.S. Suchodolsk i (2010): Molecular characterization of the cloacal microbiota of wild and captive parrots. Veterinary Microbiology 146(3–4): 320–325.